Martin Luther King’s famous I Have a Desire” speech, delivered at the 28 August 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
King had been drawing on material he used in the “I Have a Fantasy” speech in his other speeches and sermons for many years. The finale of King’s April 1957 address “A Realistic Look at the Question of Progress in the Area of Race Relations,” envisioned a “fresh world,” quoted the song “My Country ’Tis of Thee,” and proclaimed that he had heard “a powerful orator say not so long ago, that… Freedom must ring from every mountain side…. Yes, let it ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado…. Let it ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let it ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let it ring from every mountain and hill of Alabama. From every mountainside, let freedom ring” (Papers Four:178─179 ). King borrowed this final segment from a speech that Archibald Carey . a minister, politician, and King family friend, delivered at the 8 July 1952 Republican National Convention. King capped the 1957 speech by paraphrasing lyrics from the spiritual Free at Last. “And when that happens we will be able to go out and sing a fresh song: ‘Free at last, free at last, good God almighty, I’m free at last’” (Papers Four:179 ).
In King’s 1959 sermon “Unfulfilled Hopes,” he describes the life of the apostle Paul as one of “unfulfilled hopes and shattered wishes” (Papers 6:360 ). He notes that suffering as intense as Paul’s “might make you stronger and bring you closer to the Almighty God,” alluding to a concept he later summarized in “I Have a Desire”: “unearned suffering is redemptive” (Papers 6:366 ; King, A Call. 84).
In September 1960, King began providing speeches referring directly to the American Wish. In a speech given that month at a conference of the North Carolina branches of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People . King referred to the unexecuted clauses of the preamble to the U.S. Constitution and spoke of America as “a fantasy yet unfulfilled,” (Papers Five:508 ). He advised the crowd that “we must be sure that our fight is conducted on the highest level of dignity and discipline” and reminded them not to “drink the poisonous wine of hate,” but to use the “way of nonviolence” when taking “direct act” against oppression (Papers Five:510 ).
King continued to give versions of this speech via 1961 and 1962, then calling it “The American Desire.” Two months before the March on Washington, King stood before a throng of 150,000 people at Cobo Hall in Detroit to expound upon making “the American Wish a reality” (King, A Call, 70). King repeatedly exclaimed, “I have a wish this afternoon” (King, A Call. 71). He articulated the words of the prophets Amos and Isaiah, announcing that “justice will roll down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream,” for “every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low” (King, A Call, 72). As he had done numerous times in the previous two years, King concluded his message imagining the day “when all of God’s children, black boys and white guys, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join palms and sing with the Negroes in the spiritual of old: Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!” (King, A Call, 73).
As King and his advisors ready his speech for the conclusion of the 1963 march, he solicited suggestions for the text. Clarence Jones suggested a metaphor for the unfulfilled promise of constitutional rights for African Americans, which King incorporated into the final text: “America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are worried” (King, A Call, 82). Several other drafts and suggestions were posed. References to Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation were sustained via the uncountable revisions. King recalled that he did not finish the accomplish text of the speech until Trio:30 A.M. on the morning of August 28.
Later that day, King stood at the podium overlooking the gathering. Albeit a typescript version of the speech was made available to the press on the morning of the march, King did not merely read his ready remarks. He later recalled: “I commenced out reading the speech, and I read it down to a point…the audience response was wonderful that day…. And all of a unexpected this thing came to me that…I’d used many times before. ‘I have a desire.’ And I just felt that I wished to use it here…I used it, and at that point I just turned aside from the manuscript altogether. I didn’t come back to it” (King, 29 November 1963).
The following day, in the Fresh York Times James Reston wrote: “Dr. King touched all the themes of the day, only better than anybody else. He was utter of the symbolism of Lincoln and Gandhi, and the cadences of the Bible. He was both militant and sad, and he sent the crowd away feeling that the long journey had been worthwhile” (Reston, “‘I Have a Fantasy…’”).
Carey to King, 7 June 1955, in Papers Two:560─561 .
Hansen, The Fantasy. 2003.
King, “The Negro and the American Fantasy,” excerpt from address at the Annual Freedom Mass Meeting of the North Carolina State Conference of Branches of the NAACP, 25 September 1960, in Papers Five:508─511 .
King, “I Have a Fantasy,” in A Call to Conscience. eds. Carson and Shepard, 2001.
King, “A Realistic Look at the Question of Progress in the Area of Race Relations,” Address Delivered at St. Louis Freedom Rally, Ten April 1957, in Papers Four:167─179 .
King, “Unfulfilled Hopes,” Sermon delivered at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Five April 1959, in Papers 6:359─367 .
James Reston, “‘I Have a Wish…’: Peroration by Dr. King Sums Up a Day the Capital Will Recall,” Fresh York Times. 29 August 1963.
King, “Address at the Freedom Rally in Cobo Hall,” in A Call to Conscience. Carson and Shepard, eds. 2001.
King, Interview by Donald Smith, 29 November 1963, DHSTR-WHi.