College of Arts and Sciences

 College of Arts and Sciences


What this handout is about

In this crazy, mixed-up world of ours, transitions glue our ideas and our essays together. This handout will introduce you to some useful transitional expressions and help you employ them effectively.

The function and importance of transitions

In both academic writing and professional writing, your purpose is to convey information clearly and concisely, if not to convert the reader to your way of thinking. Transitions help you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections inbetween sentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitions tell readers what to do with the information you present to them. Whether single words, quick phrases, or total sentences, they function as signs that tell readers how to think about, organize, and react to old and fresh ideas as they read through what you have written.

Transitions signal relationships inbetween ideas—relationships such as: «Another example coming up—stay alert!» or «Here’s an exception to my previous statement» or «Although this idea emerges to be true, here’s the real story.» Basically, transitions provide the reader with directions for how to lump together your ideas into a logically coherent argument. Transitions are not just wordy decorations that embellish your paper by making it sound or read better. They are words with particular meanings that tell the reader to think and react in a particular way to your ideas. In providing the reader with these significant cues, transitions help readers understand the logic of how your ideas fit together.

Signs that you might need to work on your transitions

How can you tell whether you need to work on your transitions? Here are some possible clues:

  • Your instructor has written comments like «choppy,» «jumpy,» «abrupt,» «flow,» «need signposts,» or «how is this related?» on your papers.
  • Your readers (instructors, friends, or classmates) tell you that they had trouble following your organization or train of thought.
  • You tend to write the way you think—and your brain often hops from one idea to another pretty quickly.
  • You wrote your paper in several discrete «chunks» and then pasted them together.
  • You are working on a group paper; the draft you are working on was created by pasting chunks of several people’s writing together.


Since the clarity and effectiveness of your transitions will depend greatly on how well you have organized your paper, you may want to evaluate your paper’s organization before you work on transitions. In the margins of your draft, summarize in a word or brief phrase what each paragraph is about or how it fits into your analysis as a entire. This exercise should help you to see the order of and connection inbetween your ideas more clearly.

If after doing this exercise you find that you still have difficulty linking your ideas together in a coherent style, your problem may not be with transitions but with organization. For help in this area (and a more thorough explanation of the «reverse outlining» mechanism described in the previous paragraph), please see the Writing Center’s handout on organization .

How transitions work

The organization of your written work includes two elements: (1) the order in which you have chosen to present the different parts of your discussion or argument, and (Two) the relationships you construct inbetween these parts. Transitions cannot substitute for good organization, but they can make your organization clearer and lighter to go after. Take a look at the following example:

El Pais, a Latin American country, has a fresh democratic government after having been a dictatorship for many years. Assume that you want to argue that El Pais is not as democratic as the conventional view would have us believe.

One way to effectively organize your argument would be to present the conventional view and then to provide the reader with your critical response to this view. So, in Paragraph A you would enumerate all the reasons that someone might consider El Pais very democratic, while in Paragraph B you would refute these points. The transition that would establish the logical connection inbetween these two key elements of your argument would indicate to the reader that the information in paragraph B contradicts the information in paragraph A. As a result, you might organize your argument, including the transition that links paragraph A with paragraph B, in the following manner:

Paragraph A: points that support the view that El Pais’s fresh government is very democratic.

Transition: Despite the previous arguments, there are many reasons to think that El Pais’s fresh government is not as democratic as typically believed.

Paragraph B: points that contradict the view that El Pais’s fresh government is very democratic.

In this case, the transition words «Despite the previous arguments,» suggest that the reader should not believe paragraph A and instead should consider the writer’s reasons for viewing El Pais’s democracy as suspect.

As the example suggests, transitions can help reinforce the underlying logic of your paper’s organization by providing the reader with essential information regarding the relationship inbetween your ideas. In this way, transitions act as the glue that ties the components of your argument or discussion into a unified, coherent, and persuasive entire.

Types of transitions

Now that you have a general idea of how to go about developing effective transitions in your writing, let us shortly discuss the types of transitions your writing will use.

The types of transitions available to you are as diverse as the circumstances in which you need to use them. A transition can be a single word, a phrase, a sentence, or an entire paragraph. In each case, it functions the same way: Very first, the transition either directly summarizes the content of a preceding sentence, paragraph, or section or implies such a summary (by reminding the reader of what has come before). Then, it helps the reader anticipate or comprehend the fresh information that you wish to present.

  1. Transitions inbetween sections: Particularly in longer works, it may be necessary to include transitional paragraphs that summarize for the reader the information just covered and specify the relevance of this information to the discussion in the following section.
  2. Transitions inbetween paragraphs: If you have done a good job of arranging paragraphs so that the content of one leads logically to the next, the transition will highlight a relationship that already exists by summarizing the previous paragraph and suggesting something of the content of the paragraph that goes after. A transition inbetween paragraphs can be a word or two (however, for example, similarly ), a phrase, or a sentence. Transitions can be at the end of the very first paragraph, at the beginning of the 2nd paragraph, or in both places.
  3. Transitions within paragraphs: As with transitions inbetween sections and paragraphs, transitions within paragraphs act as cues by helping readers to anticipate what is coming before they read it. Within paragraphs, transitions tend to be single words or brief phrases.

Transitional expressions

Effectively constructing each transition often depends upon your capability to identify words or phrases that will indicate for the reader the kind of logical relationships you want to convey. The table below should make it lighter for you to find these words or phrases. Whenever you have trouble finding a word, phrase, or sentence to serve as an effective transition, refer to the information in the table for assistance. Look in the left column of the table for the kind of logical relationship you are attempting to express. Then look in the right column of the table for examples of words or phrases that express this logical relationship.

Keep in mind that each of these words or phrases may have a slightly different meaning. Consult a dictionary or writer’s handbook if you are unassured of the exact meaning of a word or phrase.

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