Writing a Literature Review
A literature review is both a summary and explanation of the finish and current state of skill on a limited topic as found in academic books and journal articles. There are two kinds of literature reviews you might write at university: one that students are asked to write as a stand-alone assignment in a course, often as part of their training in the research processes in their ?eld, and the other that is written as part of an introduction to, or prep for, a longer work, usually a thesis or research report. The concentrate and perspective of your review and the kind of hypothesis or thesis argument you make will be determined by what kind of review you are writing. One way to understand the differences inbetween these two types is to read published literature reviews or the ?rst chapters of theses and dissertations in your own subject area. Analyse the structure of their arguments and note the way they address the issues.
Purpose of the Literature Review
- It gives readers effortless access to research on a particular topic by selecting high quality articles or studies that are relevant, meaningful, significant and valid and summarizing them into one accomplish report
- It provides an excellent beginning point for researchers beginning to do research in a fresh area by forcing them to summarize, evaluate, and compare original research in that speci?c area
- It ensures that researchers do not duplicate work that has already been done
- It can provide clues as to where future research is heading or recommend areas on which to concentrate
- It highlights key ?ndings
- It identi?es inconsistencies, gaps and contradictions in the literature
- It provides a constructive analysis of the methodologies and approaches of other researchers
Content of the Review
The introduction explains the concentrate and establishes the importance of the subject. It discusses what kind of work has been done on the topic and identi?es any controversies within the ?eld or any latest research which has raised questions about earlier assumptions. It may provide background or history. It concludes with a purpose or thesis statement. In a stand-alone literature review, this statement will sum up and evaluate the state of the art in this ?eld of research; in a review that is an introduction or preparatory to a thesis or research report, it will suggest how the review ?ndings will lead to the research the writer proposes to undertake.
Often divided by headings/subheadings, the assets summarizes and evaluates the current state of skill in the ?eld. It notes major themes or topics, the most significant trends, and any ?ndings about which researchers agree or disagree. If the review is preliminary to your own thesis or research project, its purpose is to make an argument that will justify your proposed research. Therefore, it will discuss only that research which leads directly to your own project.
The conclusion summarizes all the evidence introduced and shows its signi?cance. If the review is an introduction to your own research, it highlights gaps and indicates how previous research leads to your own research project and chosen methodology. If the review is a stand-alone assignment for a course, it should suggest any practical applications of the research as well as the implications and possibilities for future research.
Nine Steps To Writing A Literature Review
1. Find a Working Topic
Look at your speci?c area of probe. Think about what interests you, and what is fertile ground for probe. Talk to your professor, brainstorm, and read lecture notes and latest issues of periodicals in the ?eld.
Two. Review the Literature
Three. Concentrate Your Topic Narrowly and Select Papers Accordingly
Consider the following:
Choose an area of research that is due for a review.
Four. Read the Selected Articles Scrupulously and Evaluate Them
Five. Organize the Selected Papers By Looking For Patterns and By Developing Subtopics
Note things such as:
6. Develop a Working Thesis
Write a one or two sentence statement summarizing the conclusion you have reached about the major trends and developments you see in the research that has been done on your subject.
7. Organize Your Own Paper Based on the Findings From Steps Four & Five
Develop headings/subheadings. If your literature review is extensive, ?nd a large table surface, and on it place post-it notes or ?ling cards to organize all your ?ndings into categories. Stir them around if you determine that (a) they ?t better under different headings, or (b) you need to establish fresh topic headings.
8. Write the Assets of the Paper
Go after the plan you have developed above, making certain that each section links logically to the one before and after, and that you have divided your sections by themes or subtopics, not by reporting the work of individual theorists or researchers.
9. Look At What You Have Written; Concentrate On Analysis, Not Description
Look at the topic sentences of each paragraph. If you were to read only these sentences, would you ?nd that your paper introduced a clear position, logically developed, from beginning to end? If, for example, you ?nd that each paragraph starts with a researcher's name, it might indicate that, instead of evaluating and comparing the research literature from an analytical point of view, you have simply described what research has been done. This is one of the most common problems with student literature reviews. So if your paper still does not show up to be de?ned by a central, guiding concept, or if it does not critically analyse the literature selected, then you should make a fresh outline based on what you have said in each section and paragraph of the paper, and determine whether you need to add information, to delete off-topic information, or to restructure the paper entirely.
For example, look at the following two passages and note that Student A is merely describing the literature and Student B takes a more analytical and evaluative treatment, by comparing and contrasting. You can also see that this evaluative treatment is well signalled by linguistic markers indicating logical connections (words such as “however,” “moreover”) and phrases such as “substantiates the claim that,” which indicate supporting evidence and Student B's capability to synthesize skill.
Smith (2000) concludes that private privacy in their living quarters is the most significant factor in nursing home residents' perception of their autonomy. He suggests that the physical environment in the more public spaces of the building did not have much influence on their perceptions. Neither the layout of the building, nor the activities available seem to make much difference. Jones and Johnstone make the claim that the need to control one's environment is a fundamental need of life (2001), and suggest that the treatment of most institutions, which is to provide total care, may be as bad as no care at all. If people have no choices or think that they have none, they become depressed.
After studying residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, Smith (2000) came to the conclusion that except for the amount of individual privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had minimal if any effect on their perceptions of control (autonomy). However, French (1998) and Haroon (2000) found that availability of private areas is not the only aspect of the physical environment that determines residents' autonomy. Haroon interviewed 115 residents from 32 different nursing homes known to have different levels of autonomy (2000). It was found that physical structures, such as standardized furniture, heating that could not be individually regulated, and no possession of a house key for residents limited their feelings of independence. Moreover, Hope (2002), who interviewed 225 residents from various nursing homes, substantiates the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment such as the extent of resources in the facility, as well as its location, are features which residents have indicated as being of excellent importance to their independence.